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On 1 August , after more than three month of traveling, the group of about 60 persons reached their new home, the lands of Count Rumyantsev at Vishenka in Ukraine, which at this time was part of the Russian Empire. When Count Pyotr Rumyantsev died in his two sons tried to reduce the status of the Hutterites from free peasants Freibauern to that of serfs Leibeigene. Around the year there was significant inner tension and a large faction of the brothers wanted to end the community of goods. The community then divided into two groups and lived in separate communities.
The faction with individual ownership moved to the Mennonite colony Chortitza for some time, but soon returned. After a fire destroyed most of the buildings at Radichev, the Hutterites gave up their community of goods. Because the lands of the Hutterites at Radichev were not very productive, they petitioned to move to better lands and in they were allowed to relocate to Molotschna , a Mennonite colony, where they founded the village Hutterthal. When they moved, the total Hutterite population was with males and females.
In a second village was founded, called Johannesruh , and by , three more villages were founded; Hutterdorf , Neu-Huttertal , and Scheromet In Ukraine, the Hutterites enjoyed relative prosperity. When they lived among German-speaking Mennonites in Molotschna, they adopted the very efficient form of Mennonite agriculture which Johann Cornies had introduced.
In , a small group of Hutterites made plans to renew the community of goods, but was told to wait until the government approved their plans to buy separate land. A group led by the preacher George Waldner made another attempt but this attempt soon failed. In Michael Waldner was able to reinstate community of goods at one end of Hutterdorf, thus becoming the founder of the Schmiedeleut. In , Darius Walter founded another group with community of goods at the other end of Hutterdorf, thus creating the Dariusleut.
Trials to establish a communal living in Johannisruh after did not succeed. It took until in , when the Hutterites had already relocated to South Dakota, that a few families from Johannisruh, led by preacher Jacob Wipf, established a third group with communal living, the Lehrerleut. In , the Primary Schools Bill made Russian the language of instruction in schools and in a law introduced compulsory military service which led the Mennonites and Hutterites to make plans for emigration.
After sending scouts to North America in along with a Mennonite delegation , almost all Hutterites, totaling 1, individuals, migrated to the United States between and in response to the new Russian military service law. Most Hutterites are descended from these latter Named for the leader of each group the Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut and Lehrerleut, leut being based on the German word for people , they settled initially in the Dakota Territory. Here, each group reestablished the traditional Hutterite communal lifestyle.
Several state laws were enacted seeking to deny Hutterites religious legal status to their communal farms colonies. Some colonies were disbanded before these decisions were overturned in the Supreme Court. In the most severe case, four Hutterite men subjected to military draft who refused to comply were imprisoned and physically abused. Ultimately, two of the four men, the brothers Joseph and Michael Hofer , died at Leavenworth Military Prison from mistreatment, after the Armistice had been signed ending the war. The Hutterites responded to this mistreatment of their conscientious objectors by leaving the United States and moving to the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
All 18 existing American colonies were abandoned, except the oldest one, Bon Homme , where Hutterites continued to live. Other colonies moved to Canada but did not sell their vacant colonies. In , alarmed at the influx of Dakota Hutterites buying copious tracts of land, the province of Alberta passed the Communal Properties Act , severely restricting the expansion of the Dariusleut and Lehrerleut colonies. The act was repealed in , allowing Hutterites to purchase land. This act resulted in the establishment of a number of new colonies in British Columbia and Saskatchewan.
During the Great Depression when there was a lot of economic pressure on farming populations, some Schmiedeleut moved back to South Dakota , resettling abandoned property and buying abandoned colonies from the Darius- and the Lehrerleut. Contrary to other traditional Anabaptist groups like the Amish, the Old Order Mennonites and the Old Colony Mennonites , who have almost no written books about Anabaptist theology , the Hutterites possess an account of their belief by Peter Riedemann Rechenschafft unserer Religion, Leer und Glaubens and theological tracts and letters by Hans Schlaffer, Leonhard Schiemer and Ambrosius Spittelmaier are extant.
The founder of the Hutterite tradition, Jakob Hutter , "established the Hutterite colonies on the basis of the Schleitheim Confession , a classic Anabaptist statement of faith". Hutterite communes, called "colonies", are all rural; many depend largely on farming or ranching , depending on their locale for their income. Colonies in the modern era have been shifting to manufacturing as it gets more difficult to make a living on farming alone. The colony is virtually self-sufficient as far as labor, constructing its own buildings, doing its own maintenance and repair on equipment, making its own clothes, etc.
This has changed in recent years and colonies have started to depend a little more on outside sources for food, clothing, and other goods. Hutterite agriculture today is specialized and more or less industrialized. Hutterite children therefore have no close contact with farm animals anymore and are not protected from asthma through close contact with farm animals, like Amish children are, but are now similar to the general North American population. Hutterite colonies are mostly male-managed with women participating in roles such as cooking, medical decisions, and selection and purchase of fabric for clothing.
Each colony has three high-level leaders. The two top-level leaders are the Minister and the Secretary. A third leader is the Assistant Minister. The Minister also holds the position as President in matters related to the incorporation of the legal business entity associated with each colony. The Secretary is widely referred to as the colony "Manager", "Boss" or "Business Boss" and is responsible for the business operations of the colony, such as bookkeeping, cheque-writing and budget organization.
The Assistant Minister helps in church leadership preaching responsibilities, but will often also be the "German Teacher" for the school-aged children. The Secretary's wife sometimes holds the title of Schneider from German "tailor" and thus she is in charge of clothes making and purchasing the colony's fabric requirements for making of all clothing. The term "boss" is used widely in colony language.
Aside from the Secretary who functions as the business boss, there are a number of other significant "boss" positions in most colonies. The most significant in the average colony is the "Farm Boss. This includes crop management, agronomy , crop insurance planning and assigning staff to various farming operations.
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Beyond these top-level leadership positions there will also be the "Hog Boss","Dairy Boss", and so on, depending on what agricultural operations exist at the specific colony. In each case, these individuals are fully responsible for their area of responsibility and will have other colony residents working in their area. The Minister, Secretary, and all "boss" positions are elected positions and many decisions are taken to a vote before they are implemented. The voting and decision-making process at most colonies is based upon a two-tiered structure including a council—usually seven senior males—and the voting membership which includes all the married men of the colony.
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For "significant" decisions the council will first vote and, if passed, the decision will be carried to the voting membership. This structure has resulted in a democratic culture in most colonies. Officials not following the democratically selected decisions can be removed by a similar vote of a colony. There is a wide range of leadership cultures and styles between the three main colony varieties. In some cases very dominant ministers or secretaries may hold greater sway over some colonies than others.
However, the general prevailing culture in most colonies is strongly democratic.
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Women and children hold no formal vote in decision-making power in a colony. They often hold influence on decision-making through the informal processes of a colony's social framework. Overarching all internal governance processes within a single colony is the broader "Bishop" structure of leaders from across a "branch" Lehrer-, Darius- or Schmiedeleut such that all colonies within each branch are subject to the broader decision-making of that branch's "Bishop" council.
A minister of a colony who does not ensure his colony follows broader "Bishop" council decisions can be removed from his position. Hutterites practice a near-total community of goods: This practice is based largely on Hutterite interpretation of passages in chapters 2, 4, and 5 of Acts , which speak of the believers "having all things in common". Thus the colony owns and operates its buildings and equipment like a corporation. Housing units are built and assigned to individual families but belong to the colony and there is very little personal property. Lunch and dinner meals are taken by the entire colony in a dining or fellowship room.
Men and women sit in a segregated fashion. Special occasions sometimes allow entire families to enjoy meals together. Individual housing units do have kitchens which are used for breakfast meals. Each colony may consist of about 10 to 20 families may not always apply , with a population of around 60 to When the colony's population grows near the upper limit and its leadership determines that branching off is economically and spiritually necessary, they locate, purchase land for, and build a "daughter" colony. The process by which a colony splits to create a new daughter colony varies across the branches of colonies.
In Lehrerleut, this process is quite structured, while in Darius and Schmiedeleut the process can be somewhat less structured. In a Lehrerleut colony, the land will be purchased and buildings actually constructed before anyone in the colony knows who will be relocating to the daughter colony location. The final decision as to who leaves and who stays will not be made until everything is ready at the new location.
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During the construction process, the colony leadership splits the colony up as evenly as possible, creating two separate groups of families. The two groups are made as close as possible to equal in size, taking into account the practical limits of family unit sizes in each group. Additionally, the leadership must split the business operations as evenly as possible. This means deciding which colony might take on, for example, either hog farming or dairy. Colony members are given a chance to voice concerns about which group a family is assigned to, but at some point, a final decision is made.
This process can be very difficult and stressful for a colony, as many political and family dynamics become topics of discussion, and not everyone will be happy about the process or its results. Once all decisions have been made, the two groups might be identified as "Group A" and "Group B".
The minister will pray, asking for God's choice of the paper drawn from the hat, and will draw one piece of paper. The name drawn will indicate which group is leaving for the daughter colony. Within hours, the daughter colony begins the process of settling a brand new site.
This very structured procedure differs dramatically from the one that might be used at some Darius and Schmiedeleut colonies, where the split can sometimes be staggered over time, with only small groups of people moving to the new location at a time. Hutterite colonies often own large tracts of land and, since they function as a collective unit, can make or afford higher quality equipment than if they were working alone.
An increasing number of Hutterite colonies are again venturing into the manufacturing sector, a change that is reminiscent of an early period of Hutterite life in Europe. Before the Hutterites emigrated to North America, they relied on manufacturing to sustain their communities. It was only in Russia that the Hutterites learned to farm from the Mennonites.
Because of the increasing automation of farming large equipment, GPS-controlled seeding, spraying, etc. Many colonies that have gone into manufacturing believe they need to provide their members with a higher level of education. A major driving force for Hutterite leadership today is the recognition that land prices have risen dramatically in Alberta and Saskatchewan because of the oil and gas industry,  thus creating the need for a greater amount of cash to buy land when it comes time for a colony to split. The splitting process requires the purchase of land and the construction of buildings.
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